Friday, May 22, 2020

Hand Gloves - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 678 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/09/22 Category Advertising Essay Type Narrative essay Tags: Health Care Essay Did you like this example? Introductions Healthcare Associated Infection (HCA1) has been around for centuries, but thanks for the intervention of technology and surveillance, success has been achieved in reducing the risk in which it’s spreading. I intend to summarise the article â€Å"appropriate glove use in the prevention of cross infection† by Flores (2007), during our search for articles for the essay I found this topic eye catching because I strongly believe, as a future nurse we all have a role to play in making sure, our customers or patient leaves the hospital infection free. During the activities we were told to summaries the key message the author was trying to reach out to us, the main key points its on ways in which health professionals can avoid and prevent cross infection from spreading from one patient to another. And I believe as a future nurse apart from caring for patients these topic is one of the basic area of specialities we should all be engaged in. Listening to the news, Hospital acquire infection is also one of the major problems facing hospitals and clinical area around the world today, and also in media and public eyes. According to statistics the cost of treating patients who has been infected with one of these communicable diseases is enormous. Hospital acquire disease is also one of the biggest issues arising in the National Health Services (NHS) and it’s putting the trust into huge amount of debt. The cost of treating patients who has been infected from one of these cross infectious disease is causing the medical teams into a lot of stress and that of the patient too. Illness alone can be very stressful event for both the body and mind. A wide range of physical sensations (the effects of nausea, pain or a high temperature for example) are coupled with fears and uncertainties over their meaning. The epidemic of hospital acquired infection has been around for 100 of decades, the awareness of good hand hygiene was notified in early 1800’s due to the amount of high death rate. People have lost their lives due to the carelessness and inadequate training given to healthcare workers. Majority of the members of staff working in health care settings has not been properly educated on the uses of hand gloves, the importance of good hand hygiene after glove use, and following the normal procedure of when and when not to use hand gloves. I keep asking myself these questions regarding Healthcare associated disease, what is the knowledge people have about these communicable diseases? How well are the public aware of the communicable disease? How importance is the chain of infection and ways of avoiding it spreading it to patients to patients well interpreted to clinical members of staff? More so it is important for both healthcare workers and the pubic to understand the sources of infection and its chain of spreading before they can establish simple and sensible control measures. My chosen article f or my essay â€Å"appropriate glove use in the prevention of cross infection written by Flores A (2007). Ashley Flores is senior Nurse Infection control. It’s a very wide and interesting area of branch I will really need to devote my time on and to role out the usefulness of good hand wash, because I believe as health practitioner we all have a big contribution to the health of our patients. Infection control programs are only as effective as the understanding of the staff who implements them. I hope to elaborate on the importance of good hand hygiene in not only health care settings but where ever we go and the important aspect it has on the role of been a qualified nurse, as well as explaining my academic skills in the selection of the article. This article relates very much to my field of discipline which is looking after the elderly who are vulnerable, they seem to be at a very high risk of contacting these infectious diseases due to the fact that their immune system seems not to be effective as it use to Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Hand Gloves" essay for you Create order

Monday, May 18, 2020

Project Quality Management Project Management - 1322 Words

QUESTION 1 Q: Why Project Quality management is so crucial in the completion of any project? Outline the various project quality management processes used. Describe in detail the process of Quality control. a. INTRODUCTION. Within any project there are a number of factors that are right up there and often preoccupy members of the Project Team. These include making sure that the project completes on time, making sure that the project does not go over budget and ensuring that all the team members are focused on delivery of the completed project. But there is also another factor that should be right up there, in order to make sure that the project is completed satisfactorily and that is quality. b. DEFINITION OF QUALITY. It is delivering a project that will at least meet and preferably exceed the client’s expectations through actions and deliverables that create a really excellent product, in this case, the project. c. PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT. It includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It includes â€Å"all activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives, and responsibilities and implements them by means such as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement, within the quality system† . d. PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROCESS. Figure below provides an overview of the following major project quality management processes: (1) QualityShow MoreRelatedProject Quality And Quality Management Project926 Words   |  4 PagesQuality is the amount to which a project satisfies the requirements. Project Quality is a set of different criteria and objectives that are inserted into success criteria used by project customers to accept the project results. Project Quality is an explanation of requirements desired by the project clients, and they refer to explanation of: †¢ Relative value of the project results which the customers expect to obtain at certain costs; †¢ Effectiveness of project results gaged by detailed requirementsRead MoreQuality Of Project Quality Management775 Words   |  4 PagesQuality in â€Å"Project quality management† Project quality management ensures that the quality of the project is up to the quantified standard defined by the company. It was suggested by (Gomes et al, 2005) that as a result of similar management techniques in efficiently operating companies globally it can be concluded that the most successful companies focus on maximizing customer’s satisfaction. The various methods important for understanding objectives of project quality management are ISO, PMBOKRead MoreQuality And Quality Of Project Management982 Words   |  4 PagesAbstract This paper explains what the term† quality† is in system projects, different views of stakeholder regarding the term ‘quality’ for a particular system project and also their differences in terms of project’s quality and product. This paper illustrates about the various methodologies used for improving the quality of the project and the steps taken for monitoring the project’s quality. The possible impacts in terms of project planning and control and people involved and means of detectingRead MoreQuality Of A Project Management1768 Words   |  8 Pagessystem lead to high quality of the project. The guarantee of nice quality of a project is essential for project management. The project pass rate achieves 100 % and with excellent rate by more than 90 %, which means as a project management specialist said, it results from first-rate construction organization, project supervision and project builders. During the preparation of Cowboys Stadium, all designers, project managers and builders try their best to ensure its quality, regarding it as an artRead MoreProject Management Plan For Quality Management2724 Words   |  11 Pagesprocess called quality management is created to ensure that all project activities that are necessary to be designed, to plan and finally to implement in a project, become an effective and efficient way to archive the purpose, objectivity and its performance. In a continuous process that usually begins and end with the project. It is more about preventing and avoiding than measuring and fixing poor quality outputs. It is part of every project management processes from the moment the project initiatesRead MoreQuality Issues in Project Management974 Words   |  4 PagesQUALITY ISSUES IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT 1. Introduction There are a number of issues surrounding the general area of â€Å"quality† in project management. You will need to be aware of some of the requirements of PRINCE (or PRINCE2) as well as the more general aspects of the ISO 9000 and 14000 series. 2. Quality requirements as part of PRINCE PRINCE2 (Projects in Controlled Environments) was revised from PRINCE in 1996 and is the accepted standard for the control of projects in the computingRead MoreQuality Control Project Management1807 Words   |  8 PagesMany failed projects today can be attributed to poor or total neglect of quality standards through lack of Quality control. Quality control, when implemented in a project, helps in yielding profit because the output is usually of great standard whereas when omitted, unavoidable losses are incurred. A project is said to be complete when the output not only conforms to pre-defined requirements but also to quality standards of the category it falls in. e.g. Standard for Quality Management Systems ISORead MoreThe Importance of Project Quality Management2249 Words   |  9 PagesChapter 8: Project Quality Management Learning Objectives 2 ï‚â€" ï‚â€" ï‚â€" ï‚â€" ï‚â€" Understand the importance of project quality management for information technology products and services Define project quality management and understand how quality relates to various aspects of information technology projects Describe quality planning and its relationship to project scope management Discuss the importance of quality assurance Explain the main outputs of the quality control process The ImportanceRead MoreProject Excellence Model For Quality Management1394 Words   |  6 PagesThe Project Excellence Model(PEM) was set up in 1997 by Roland Ottmann and was derived from the European Foundation for Quality Management(EFQM) model. The PEM model mainly contain two processes; 1) Evaluation of project management process and 2) measurement of the results achieved in a project. Based on E. Westerveld’s research in 2002, the Project Excellence Model link project success criteria and critical success into one coherent model. Given that PEM Model was adapted from EFQM-model whoseRead MoreProject Quality Management Systems Approach1158 Words   |  5 PagesProject quality management Quality management ensures all the activities that involved in project, includes objectives, responsibilities, policies†¦ shall be effectively and efficiently meet the desired performance which there were undertaken. Failure to meet the quality requirements can result in serious issue. Hence, few quality management disciplines need to be implemented so as to meet the needs of customers and stakeholders. e.g. IOS9000 and building code. 1. ISO9000: ISO9000 series are the

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison - 1095 Words

Social class is a major theme in the book The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. Toni Morrison is saying that there are dysfunctional families in every social class, though people only think of it in the lower class. Toni Morrison was also stating that people also use social class to separate themselves from others and apart from race; social class is one thing Pauline and Geraldine admire.Claudia, Pecola, and Frieda are affected by not only their own social status, but others social status too - for example Geraldine and Maureen Peal. Characters in the book use their social class as another reason for being ugly. Readers are reminded of the theme every time a new character enters into the book. Social Class starts off in the book when Claudia†¦show more content†¦They cover up the funkiness and hide it day after day; they refuse to let it be a factor in their lives. People envy these women. The characters often associate money with happiness; because Geraldine has more money than them they think she is living a blessed life. But that assumption is totally wrong. Geraldine, her husband Louis, and her son Louis Jr. are all unhappy, while the Macteers, a low class family, sticks together and try to make the best out of nothing. For example â€Å"Love, thick and dark as Alaga syrup, eased up into that cracked window. I could smell it – taste it – sweet, musty, with an edge of wintergreen in its base – everywhere in that house† page 12 (Toni Morrison). This shows that even know though they were poor and could not afford the greatest things the MacTeers kept love alive. In Geraldine’s house it is neatly kept and furnished with elaborate decorations but the owners are emotionless and oblivious of the unloving atmosphere. Geraldine was a great housewife who cleaned, always had dinner, breakfast and lunch ready, ironed her husband’s clothes but did not feel love towards them. â€Å"The cat will always know that he is first in her affections. Even after she bears a child.† page 86 (Toni Morrison.) Another way this theory is proven wrong is that two families, one middle class, and one lower class, both experience troubled families. The Breedloves and Geraldine’s family are inShow MoreRelatedThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1720 Words   |  7 Pagesof The Bluest Eye, Toni Morrison, criticizes the danger of race discrimination for any kinds of situations with no exception. The purpose of the paper is explain how pervasive and destructive social racism was bound to happen in American society. The intended audiences are not only black people, but also other races had suffered racism until now. I could find out and concentrate on the most notable symbols which are whiteness, blue eyes and the characterization while reading the novel. Toni MorrisonRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1587 Words   |  7 Pagessaid, â€Å"We were born to die and we die to live.† Toni Morrison correlates to Nelson’s quote in her Nobel Lecture of 1993, â€Å"We die. That may be the meaning of life. But we do language. That may be the measure of our lives.† In Toni Morrison’s novel, The Bluest Eye, she uses language to examine the concepts of racism, lack of self-identity, gender roles, and socioeconomic hardships as they factor into a misinterpretation of the American Dream. Morrison illustrates problems that these issues provoke throughRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison956 Words   |  4 PagesHistory of Slavery Influenced the Characters of The Bluest Eye Unlike so many pieces of American literature that involve and examine the history of slavery and the years of intensely-entrenched racism that ensued, the overall plot of the novel, The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison, does not necessarily involve slavery directly, but rather examines the aftermath by delving into African-American self-hatred. Nearly all of the main characters in The Bluest Eye who are African American are dominated by the endlessRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1189 Words   |  5 PagesA standard of beauty is established by the society in which a person lives and then supported by its members in the community. In the novel The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison, we are given an extensive understanding of how whiteness is the standard of beauty through messages throughout the novel that whiteness is superior. Morrison emphasizes how this ideality distorts the minds and lives of African-American women and children. He emphasizes that in order for African-American wom en to survive in aRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison2069 Words   |  9 Pagesblack/whiteness. Specifically, white people were positioned at the upper part of the hierarchy, whereas, African Americans were inferior. Consequently, white people were able to control and dictate to the standards of beauty. In her novel, ‘The Bluest Eye’, Toni Morrison draws upon symbolism, narrative voice, setting and ideals of the time to expose the effects these standards had on the different characters. With the juxtaposition of Claudia MacTeer and Pecola Breedlove, who naively conforms to the barrierRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1103 Words   |  5 Pages Toni Morrison is known for her prized works exploring themes and issues that are rampant in African American communities. Viewing Toni Morrison’s novel The Bluest Eye from a psychoanalytical lens sheds light onto how, as members of a marginalized group, character’s low self-esteem reflect into their actions, desires, and defense mechanisms. In her analysis of psychoanalytical criticism, Lois Tyson focuses on psychological defense mechanisms such as selective perception, selective memory, denialRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison Essay1314 Words   |  6 PagesThe Bluest Eye, by Toni Morrison, encompasses the themes of youth, gender, and race. The African American Civil Rights Movement had recently ended at the time the novel was written. In the book, Morrison utilizes a first-person story to convey her views on racial inequality. The protagonist and her friends find themselves in moments where they are filled with embarrassment and have a wish to flee such events. Since they are female African Americans, they are humiliated in society. One of Morrison’sRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1462 Words   |  6 PagesBildungsroman literature in the 20th century embodies the virtues of different authors’ contexts and cultures, influencing the fictional stories of children’s lives around the wo rld.. The Bluest Eye is a 1970 publication by Toni Morrison set in 1940s Ohio in America, focal around the consequence of racism in an American community on the growth of a child, distinct in its use of a range of narrative perspectives. Annie John by Jamaica Kincaid is a novel set in post colonial Antigua, published in 1985Read MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison992 Words   |  4 PagesSet in the 1940s, during the Great Depression, the novel The Bluest Eye, by Toni Morrison, illustrates in the inner struggles of African-American criticism. The Breedloves, the family the story revolves around a poor, black and ugly family. They live in a two-room store front, which is open, showing that they have nothing. In the family there is a girl named Pecola Breedlove, she is a black and thinks that she is ugly because she is not white. Pecola’s father, Cholly Breedlove, goes through humiliatedRead MoreThe Bluest Eye By Toni Morrison1044 Words   |  5 PagesIn the novel The Bluest E ye, Toni Morrison confirms the existence of racism within the African American community. Unbelievably, many African Americans suffer from what is termed internalized racism. Internalized racism produces the same effect as racial racism: feelings of worthlessness, inferiority, and unattractiveness. In addition, the effect can produce the opposite feelings: superiority, hatred, and feelings of self-worth. Pecola, an 11-year-old black girl, desires to have the physical characteristics

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on No Blood Transfusion for Jehovahs Witnesses

Jehovahs witnesses’ faith allows them to seek medical help; however, they do not accept blood transfusions. This belief arises from a biblical passage that states Only flesh with its soul- its blood-you must not eat (Genesis 9:3-4), You must not eat the blood of any sort of flesh, because the soul of every sort of flesh is its blood. I will set my face against that person who eats blood...Anyone eating it will be cut off† (Leviticus 17:10, 13-14). These passages are interpreted by Jehovahs witnesses as forbidding the transfusion of any blood products. The following presentation will address legal and ethical issues that can arise from this scenario. Keywords: Jehovah’s Witness, blood transfusion, blood, faith. Administration†¦show more content†¦Jehovah’s Witnesses respect their religion and their beliefs and many strongly adhere to them because of the many consequences that they may face. Jehovah’s Witness believe that if they accept blood products, they will suffer severe consequences. Some of the consequences Jehovah’s Witness believe they will encounter include lack of spiritual purpose, relationship with God will be damaged and they will be expelled from their congregation (Jehovah’s Witnesses, 2000). Many parents face the worse decision when a child is involved. The following scenario explores the legal and ethical decisions involved with a pediatric patient. A six year old boy suffering from Sickle cell anemia is brought to the hospital with a crisis. During a sickle cell anemia crisis, red blood cells are damaged and they are unable to deliver oxygen to the body. The standard treatment is oxygen, hydration, blood replacements and exchange transfusion (Anita, 2006). The pediatric patient was admitted in critical condition and a blood transfusion is necessary. Parents stated they want to save their child and will accept any type of treatment except for blood products. Adults have the right to refuse any type of treatment including blood products. Nurses are there to support and advocate for the patient and to assist and support the patient when other methods of treatment are chosen. Parents with full custodyShow MoreRelatedNursing : The Protection, Promotion, And Optimization Of Health And Abilities1479 Words   |  6 Pageswouldn’t you want to get treated? In nursing school I learned that people have religious beliefs that sometimes prevents them from getting some type of medical help just like the Jehovah’s Witnesses. In this Reflective project I will concentrate on the medical issues of Jehovah’s Witnesses who refuse blood transfusions because of their religious beliefs and the affect it has on nurses whose jobs are to help, care, and save their patients lives. To what extent can a nurse really care for their patientsRead MoreEssay On Health Care Choices733 Words   |  3 Pagesperson’s cultural beliefs may have a large impact on their healthcare decisions. Jehovahs witnesses believe in living their life following God’s teachings from the Bible. Life is sacred in the eyes of God, therefore abortions and assisted reproductive technologies may not be acceptable. Jehovahs witnesses, do not accept blood transfusions. Modest dress attire is important, but has no effect on the decisions of a Jehovahs Witness. With any decision being made, one must be sure the decision will notRead MoreEthical Implications in Nursing974 Words   |  4 Pagesbooks of Genesis and Acts in the Bible h old passages that Jehovah’s Witnesses feel are key in their beliefs on not receiving blood transfusions (Ethics, 2009). For the medical community this is a difficult issue to deal with and relate to. Saving lives is what healthcare is about and blood transfusions assist in that. For some, however, blood transfusions are not an option. Although denial of life saving measures such as blood transfusions may not be ideal for members of healthcare, it is an importantRead More Beliefs About Blood Essay552 Words   |  3 Pages Beliefs about blood: Blood Transfusion: They refuse to accept blood transfusions and do not allow them to be given to their children. This is based upon four passages in the Bible which prohibit the consuming of blood: nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Genesis 9:4 quot;But flesh (meat) shall not eatquot; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Leviticus 17:12-14 quot;...No soul of you shall eat blood...whosoever eateth it shall be cut offquot; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Acts 15:29Read MoreJehovah s Witness And Blood Transfusion935 Words   |  4 PagesJehovah’s Witness and Blood Transfusion Ruta Urbstaite Framingham State University Abstract The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics, values and beliefs of Jehovah’s Witness group. It will discuss their reasoning for refusal to accept blood transfusions. The paper will elaborate on the best approach to offer appropriate care, advice and education while treating patients with respect in regards to their religious beliefs. British Journal of Nursing (2009) suggestsRead MoreThe Ethical issues in Paediatric Wards Essay990 Words   |  4 Pagesdecrease in oxygen saturation and abdominal distension. Abdominal radiograph indicated free air in abdomen. When obtaining the consent for surgery, the parents refuse the use of blood or blood products, because both of them were Jehovah’s Witness. However, it is impossible for the baby to survive without blood transfusion during the surgery (Meadow et al., 2010). There are no absolute rights or wrongs to this case, which is based on a synthesis of other actual clinical scenarios. The aim of this essayRead MoreWhy I Am Working At A Medical Facility1072 Words   |  5 Pagesreligious beliefs. I will be exploring Jehovah’s Witness and Muslims beliefs and views on certain medical procedure. Jehovah’s Witnesses believe illnesses of mind and body are hereditary from Adam, since he lost his excellence and could not pass on a life free of illness to his descendants. Jehovah’s Witnesses are also a well-known religious community who declines blood transfusions. This decision is usually not related to the actual risks of transfusions can have, but is more of a position centeredRead MoreGrey s Anatomy As A Medical Drama1650 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the most explicitly religious episodes aired as the thirteenth episode of the ninth season, aptly named Bad Blood. It focuses on a nineteen year old boy named Rich who is brought to the hospital with life threatening injuries after being hit by a car while skateboarding with a friend. Christina, a cardiac resident, is the surgeon in charge of his case, Rich had lost a lot of blood and Christina first order was to have some hung. Just at that moment something falls to the floor and Christina’sRead MoreThe Unit ed States Health Care System1478 Words   |  6 Pagescultural differences can be numerous. It could be difficulties interacting with a patient, especially when the patient speaks a different language. Cultural differences can present a specific challenge during surgery such as Jehovah’s Witnesses’ beliefs on blood transfusion. Culture difference can challenge one’s own personal beliefs and alter the care they provide such as gender reassignment. Language Barriers. It is estimated that the over 24 million people in the United States speak a differentRead MoreBlood Transfusion Case Study1539 Words   |  7 Pagesrefusal of blood transfusion by the patient or patient’s relatives. Blood transfusion or not is a crucial issue which creates a moral and legal dilemma for the health system; sometimes dealing with such situation takes extra time and energy. Nevertheless, doctors and nurses are obliged to provide the specific preferences and management treatment. Case study According to a case report from the Hastings Center (Orr, 2007), Joy is a thirteen-year-old from a family with a strong Jehovah’s Witness tradition

Behavioural †Avoidance of Colleague. Free Essays

string(134) " develop to cope with one situation, they can also be applied to other situations by the client to effectively ‘heal’ themselves\." Introduction Although this model can be criticised for being too simplistic and failing to take social factors into account that can affect all its component parts, it does illustrate how SP can be disabling for the client as it reveals that the emotional distress and avoidant behaviour (C) is a consequence of the negative inferences and evaluations (B), and not, as the client mistakenly believes, a consequence of the activating event (A). There may be many innocent reasons as to why the colleague ignored the client, but it is how the client not only interpreted the colleague’s action negatively, but also inferred a negative meaning and subsequently a negative evaluation, as it is certainly not catastrophic if someone does not like you. During assessment, the CB therapist will identify the A’s, B’s, and C’s by focusing on a specific emotional episode and following this procedure: 1) Assess the C 2) Assess the A 3) Connect the A and C 4) Assess B 5) Connect B to C Both (A) and (C) are assessed before (B) and 2 or 3 of these assessments are conducted as there are often several emotional episodes that have an underlying irrational belief (B) in common. We will write a custom essay sample on Behavioural – Avoidance of Colleague. or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is this identification of (B) that facilitates the next stage of formulation. A CB formulation makes an assertion that the client has one or more irrational beliefs underlying several specific episodes. CB formulations integrate information gathered during assessment and provide a working hypothesis for how the client’s SP developed, how the SP is being maintained by the client and how it might be resolved. Any formulation made by the CB therapist must be based on the client’s stated problems and be accepted by the client as a working formulation which then goes on to form the basis for CB intervention. Examples of case formulations include the Three Systems Approach (Rachman Hodgson, 1974), illustrated diagrammatically below, which attempts to understand emotional issues in behavioural, cognitive and physiological terms. However, this model does not take into account any environmental issues that may have precipitated the emotional distress. This failing was addressed by Greenberg and Padesky, (1995) in the Five Aspect Model, illustrated diagrammatically below. In this model, all aspects are experienced within the environment. An individual’s ethnicity, socio-economic status, education level or upbringing can all be considered as environmental aspects of the problem. Using a fictitious client example, James has been referred by his GP for counselling for SP. His CB therapist has conducted 3 ABC assessments, the first of which revealed that James is anxious about a job interview (A) and thinks that people will judge him as stupid (B). James’s second assessment revealed his worry about blushing when dealing with people in authority (A) and that this means that he is physically abnormal (B). His third assessment revealed his nausea (A) before delivering a best man speech where everyone would laugh at him (B). A general formulation here would be that James’s SP results from his tendency to misinterpret the facial expressions and reactions of others and his constant negative evaluation of himself in the social situation of work. It is important that the client genuinely understands the formulation. Irwin et al (1985) found that only 25% of patients genuinely understood the benefits and side effects of their treatment when questioned specifically. This means 75% did not, and without this understanding, the client will not attribute any changes to their own efforts. Once the therapist is satisfied that the client genuinely understands the formulations, then the 4 steps of intervention can begin. Firstly, the therapist and the client must agree on specific formulations to work on and secondly, using these formulations as a guide, they must together select specific goals that the client wishes to work on. Step 3 is the selection by the client, and agreed on by the therapist, of specific tasks that will help achieve the specific goals. These tasks may include the keeping of a diary of events, behaviour and emotions. Key elements of CBT treatments include Exposure, in which a client enters and remains in a feared situation despite distress, either in vivo or in vetro, beginning with situations that the client has ranked as moderately fear-provoking and moving up gradually to more highly feared situations. The use of Exposure techniques is based on the assumption that the client must fully experience the feared situation in order for change in emotional and behavioural symptoms to occur (Foa Kozak, 1986). Relaxation techniques are also used in order to help the client deal with the physiological symptoms of SP. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) techniques are taught to the client so that they can practice using the techniques during everyday activities and then be able to use them when in a fear provoking situation (Ost, 1987). A final key element in the CBT treatment arsenal is Cognitive Restructuring (CR). This is based on the assumption that it is the client’s irrational thoughts and beliefs that perpetuate the SP and not the actual situation (Beck Emery, 1985).CR is often used in combination with Exposure to challenge the client’s irrational thoughts and beliefs rather than simply a process of teaching the client to ignore SP provoking stimuli. Finally, step 4 is the agreement of boundary conditions where the therapist and client agree by negotiation the number, frequency and duration of sessions, the agendas of those sessions, role relationship and locus of responsibility. Strengths and limitations of CBT CBT is a collaborative treatment, with the therapist as an ‘expert in friend’s clothing’ rather than an aloof and removed ‘expert in doctor’s uniform’. It helps the client to develop new skills for their use in future situations, and its brevity and time-limited aspect makes it attractive for cost-conscious primary care trusts here in the UK. CBT’s focus on the issues in the here and now help to break maladaptive thinking and behavioural patterns that maintain the client’s distress levels. This in turn may help past issues from a current viewpoint, as the new skills develop to cope with one situation, they can also be applied to other situations by the client to effectively ‘heal’ themselves. You read "Behavioural – Avoidance of Colleague." in category "Essay examples" CBT’s structure and specificity in relation to goals and tasks make it very easy to evaluate and research and also gives the client positive reinforcement by being enabled to achieve realistic goals. Few studies have compared CBT with other psychotherapies in the treatment of SP, however, Cottraux et al. (2000) found that CBT was superior to supportive therapy. Treatment effects for CBT were sustained at 36 and 60 week follow-ups, although the long-term effects of supportive therapy were not assessed. CBT also has its limitations. Efficacy rates depend on the client’s expectations of success, their willingness to complete the behavioural tasks and their ability to confront uncomfortable thoughts (Rosenbaum Horowitz, 1983; Marmar, Weiss Gaston, 1989). Psychological therapies in general are increasingly becoming an integral part of government planning in mental health care with CBT increasingly being viewed by government as the first choice of treatment for many psychological problems (Clark et al, 2009) however, CBT’s apparent superiority may be undeserved. The NIMH study, now 20 years old, was the largest in the world and it found CBT performed poorly in comparison to interpersonal therapy and drug therapy (Elkin, 1994, pp. 114-142). There is also the question of CBT’s clinical relevance as opposed to its ability to produce change under lab conditions. CBT may do well in university based clinical trials with participants recruited from adverts but in the real world of clinical practice, not so well. Leff et al (2000) found that in the London Depression Trial, CBT was discontinued early due to poor compliance from clinically typical patients. CBT does not address the biological issues that may cause SP, as mentioned earlier in Blair et al (2008) and their findings regarding the amygdala’s role in causing SP, neither does it take into account the issue of co-morbidity, especially with Axis II disorders that could seriously disrupt CBT treatment. Alnaes and Torgersen (1988) found that patients with borderline personality disorder are at heightened risk for developing an anxiety disorder while Oldham et al (1995) found significant levels of comorbidity of anxiety disorders with borderline, avoidant, and dependent personality disorders. Developmental psychologists argue that SP can result from attachment problems in early childhood. Longitudinal analyses (Brumariu Kerns, 2008) showed that lower attachment security and higher ambivalent attachment were most consistently correlated with higher social anxiety levels. Alternatives to CBT include hypnotherapy (Kirsch et al, 1995; Vickers Zollman, 2001), which has shown promising results when combined with CBT. Antidepressants were initially developed to treat depression, but they are now also used to treat anxiety disorders. SSRIs such as fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft) are commonly prescribed by starting at low doses and then increased in dosage levels over time for panic disorder and social phobia (Hauser, 2006). Neural Linguistic Programming (NLP) has also shown to be effective as a ‘fast phobia cure’. Konefal Duncan (1998) provides evidence of significant reductions in SP using the Liebowitz Social Phobia Scale after NLP training. In conclusion, while CBT may have its limitations, and depend largely on the co-operation of the client, the same can be said for any psychotherapy as the outcome appears to be considerably enhanced when the client and therapist are actively involved in a cooperative relationship (Tryon Winograd, 2011). It is of note that Horvath et al (2011) found that the effect size of the link between alliance and psychotherapy outcomes was 0.275, and that this statistically significant effect accounts for about 7.5% of the variance in outcomes, showing that the alliance-outcome relationship is one of the strongest predictors of treatment success that any research has been able to document thus far. REFERENCES Alnaes, R., and Torgersen, S. (1988). The relationship between DSM-III symptom disorders (axis I) and personality disorders (axis II) in an outpatient population. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 78, 485–492. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C: APA. Antony, M. M., and Swinson, R. P. (2008). The shyness and social anxiety workbook: Proven, step-by-step techniques for overcoming your fear (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications. Beck, A.T., and Clark, D.A. (1988). Anxiety and depression: An information processing perspective. Anxiety Research: An International Journal, 1, 23-36. Beck, A. T., and Emery, G. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books. Blair, K., Shaywitz, J., Smith, B. W., Rhodes, R., Geraci, M. R. N., and Jones, M. (2008). Response to emotional expressions in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder: Evidence for separate disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1193-1202. Clark, D.M., Layard, R., Smithies, R., Richards, D.A., Suckling, R., and Wright, B. (2009). Improving access to psychological therapy: Initial evaluation of two UK demonstration sites. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47 (11), 910-920. Elkin, I. (1994). The NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. In A. E. Bergin S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behaviour Change (4th ed.), 114-142. New York: Wiley. Ellis, A. (1977). The Basic Clinical Theory of Rational-Emotive Therapy. In A. Ellis and R. Grieger (Eds.), Handbook of Rational-Emotive Therapy. New York: Springer. Foa, E. B., and Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20–35. Greenberg, D. and Padesky, C. (1995). Mind Over Mood. New York: Guilford Press. Heimberg, R. G., and Becker, R. E. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia: Basic mechanisms and clinical strategies. New York: Guilford Press. Hauser, J. (2006). Treatments for Social Phobia. Psych Central. Retrieved on July 29, 2011, from Horvath, A.O., Del Re, A.C., Fluckiger, C. (2011). Evidence-based psychotherapy relationships: Alliance in individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 48 (1), 9-16. Kirsch, I., Montgomery, G., and Sapirstein, G. (1995). Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol, 63, 214-220. Konefal, J., and Duncan, R.C. (1998). Social anxiety and training in neurolinguistic programming. Psychological Reports, 83 (1), 1115-22. Leff, J., Vearnals, S., Brewin, C., Wolff, G., Alexander, B., Asen, E., Dayson, D., Jones, E., Chisholm, D. and Everitt, B. (2000). The London Depression Intervention Trial. Randomised Controlled Trial of Antidepressants v. Couple Therapy in the Treatment and Maintenance of People with Depression Living with a Partner: Clinical Outcome and Costs, British Journal of Psychiatry, 177: 95–100; Erratum, 177: 284. Comment, 178: 181–2. Marmar, C.R., Weiss, D.S., Gaston, L. (1989). Toward the validation of the California Therapeutic Alliance Ratings System. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1, 46-52. Oldham, J.M., Skodol, A.E., Kellman, H.D., Hyler, S.E., Doidge, N., Rosnick, L., and Gallaher, P.E. (1995). Comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders. Am J Psychiatry 152, 571–578. Ost, L.G. (1987). 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Doo Wop by Lauryn Hill free essay sample

Lauryn Hill depicts the aspects of the black community that indisputably attribute to an inferior lifestyle in comparison to the rest of society in her song entitled â€Å"Doo Wop (That Thing)†. The aspects that Hill so skillfully portrays include: promiscuity, superficiality, materialism, and poor morality. Possessing any of these characteristics is detrimental to one’s existence; let alone a combination of any of them. What Lauryn Hill is able to do is pin-point the general downfalls of young African Americans, while simultaneously enlightening them. By speaking to her audience through hip-hop, she achieves this. Some Females have the tendency to become overtly naive once they are involved in relationships where they believe they are in love. Often times however, it is mere infatuation which engenders their promiscuity. Hill describes a scenario where this is evident in the first stanza of â€Å"Doo Wop†. She says, â€Å"That one you let hit it and never called you again† then goes on to say â€Å"plus when you give it up so easy you ain’t even fooling him. We will write a custom essay sample on Doo Wop by Lauryn Hill or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page † What Hill is implying is that some black women misconstrue the meaning of love by equating it with sex. Later on in the stanza she declares that these women are in denial, â€Å"Niggas f***ed up and you still defending them†, (nativity). These issues stem from lack of self with and low self- esteem which may be due to the often absent father figure in the black community. The inner beauty comes first, while the outer should come second; thus the lyric how you gone win when you ain’t right within?. Too many African Americans attempt to conceal their shortfall of character by making it up with their appearance and ownership of materialistic items. This superficiality leads to the purchasing of items that they can’t afford; causing many blacks go broke attempting to look rich. The lyric â€Å"hair weave like Europeans, fake nails done by Koreans†, pretty much sums up that concept. On a similar topic, some African American women conform to what is portrayed in music videos and other forms of mass media’s idea of beauty. Therefore the previous mentioned lyric refers to the strive of many black women to look attractive; by neglecting their God-given beauty which really makes them an individual. During childhood we are taught right from wrong, however many black men fail to apply these morals and ethics in their adulthood. Instead turning to inappropriate behavior. Lauryn Hill says that they come in club like hooligans. These men also unfortunately do not have a sense of priority they â€Å"pop crystal by the case† yet â€Å"still in the mother’s basement†. The lacks of morals, or poor morals, lead them to a life of crime and violence. By Speaking to young Africans with her lyrics of â€Å"Doo Wop (That Thing)† rather than preaching, Hill sort of guidelines what they should avoid in life.

Monday, April 27, 2020


STORIA DELL'ARTE CONTEMPORANEA. DOPO L'IMPRESSIONISMO. Cap 1 Il 1886 segna la svolta per la storia dell'arte poiche segno la fine dell'impressionismo. Mentre l'impressionismo aveva perso la sua carica vitale i nuovi artisti cercavano sempre di piu una propria autonomia. L'attenzione era tutta rivolta a Georges Pierre Seurat con il suo quadro "une dimanche apres-midi a l'ile de la grande jatte",dove il critico felix feneon ,critico,intui la portata innovativa del dipinto tanto da coniare il termine "neoimpressionismo",con questo termine si voleva partire dalla radice dell'Impressionismo. La cosa infastidi gli artisti anziani. A peggiorare la situazione fu Pissarro che aveva abbracciato il nuovo stille affermando che era quello lo stile da seguire :dove bisognava sostituire la descrizione soggettiva delle cose con un approccio piu obiettivo e scientifico. Il termine piu diffuso per descrivere la pittura di Seurat fu Pointillisme,che descriveva il metodo a puntini attraverso il quale l'artista componeva la tela,coperta da piccolissime macchi e di colore.Seurat sviluppo un ulteriore aspetto del suo lavoro:la consapevolezza di un ruolo del tutto staccato della pittura da quello della fotografia e della resa realistica delle cose. Le figure sono immote e l'ambiente e quello dello studio del pittore dove si puo notare un quadro nel quadro . I suoi lavori successivi mostrano esperimenti di resa della luce artificiale e dei corpi in movimento. Paul Signac raccolse l'eredita dell'amico e nel 1899 scrisse un saggio nel quale esponeva la teoria divisionista. Come e evidente nella La boa rossa Signac dilato sempre piu le macchie di colore creando le premesse per il Fauvismo e l'Espressionismo,ma l'eredita neoimpressionista non si risolse in questi movimenti. (lettura dell'immagine pag 12-13) Paul Cezanne non ebbe mai la popolarita dei suoi contemporanei:i suoi quadri non hanno contenuti emotivi facili a un immediato apprezzamento. Il clima artistico del 900 nacque solo dopo la sua retrospettiva realizzata a Parigi nel 1907. Egli trascorse gran parte della sua vita in conflitto con la figura paterna che lo costrinse a iscriversi alla facolta di giurisprudenza,qualche anno prima conobbe emile zola,dove il rapporto duro fino al 1886 quando zola pubblico il romanzo L'opera nel quale il protagonista e un pittore fallito,in cui Paul vede un riferimento alla sua persona.In seguito ottenne il permesso dal padre per iniziare gli studi d'arte.Conobbe Pissarro,grazie al quale seppe imprimere una svolta decisiva a un lavoro che fino ad allora aveva dato scarsa prova di originalita.La sua frequentazione con pittori impressionisti fu breve,i suoi quadri vennero rifiutati dai salon ufficiali. A differenza di altri artisti Cezanne inizio a produrre capolavori solo durante la sua maturita,egli infatti non era un artista istintivo ma riflessivo,alla continua ricerca di uno stile personale che gli consentisse di superare l'Impressionismo.Dopo i suoi lenti esordi gli fu chiaro che a differenza dei suoi maestri cio che egli desiderava non era dipingere la visione,ma la ricostruzione logica e strutturale di essa. La sua ambizione fu quella di costruire una base formale all'Impressionismo per ricollegarlo alla grande tradizione della pittura moderna. La celebre frase che scrisse "tutto in natura e formato da sfera,cilindro e cono" sottolinea questa ricerca duratura delle forme.Indipendentemente dal modo in cui la natura e strutturata la mente umana non riesce a percepirla se non tramite griglie geometriche,per questo Cezanne dipingeva dal vero,seguendo cio che chiamava "ma petite sensation".Secondo la sua teoria la natura e impossibile da riprodurre allora occorre rappresentarla mediante i colori intesi come degli equivalenti pittorici,anzitutto bisogna eliminare i contorni i profili delle figure perche non esiste in natura ma e solamente un artificio. La costruzione del dipinto viene realizzata mediante la modulazione del colore:macchie poste una accanto all'altra conferiscono grazie alla loro differenze di tono,l'illusione della tridimensionalita. La conseguenza di questo metodo e una pittura che sembra intessuta in cui l'intarsio delle aree discrete crea una sensazione di solidificazione non solo degli oggetti ma anche dell'atmosfera che li circonda. Aiuta questa sensazione il fatto che il mezzo usato per stendere il colore sia opacizzante ,tale da impedire una riflessione fluida della luce. Ne risultano opere in cui l'emotivita e contenuta in una costruzione architettonica che sacrifica la veridicita del colore.Negli ultimi venti anni Cezanne dipinse quasi solamente tre soggetti:nature morte,figure e paesaggi.Fra questi la Montagna Sainte-Victoire,una musa ispiratrice attorno a cui si esercito la sua tensione